A backdoor Roth IRA is a way for individuals who exceed the income limit to contribute to a Roth IRA. The main reason someone might want to do a backdoor Roth IRA is to take advantage of the tax-free growth and withdrawals that are associated with a Roth IRA. Contributions to a Roth IRA are made with after-tax dollars, meaning that you pay taxes on the money you contribute upfront. However, the earnings on your contributions grow tax-free and can be withdrawn tax-free in retirement.
By doing a backdoor Roth IRA, high-income earners who are not eligible to make direct contributions to a Roth IRA can still take advantage of the tax benefits of a Roth IRA. This can be particularly beneficial for individuals who expect to be in a higher tax bracket in retirement than they are currently in, as they can avoid paying taxes on their withdrawals in retirement. Additionally, Roth IRAs do not have required minimum distributions (RMDs), so individuals can leave their money in the account for as long as they want without being forced to withdraw it.
When doing a backdoor Roth IRA, there are several important things to keep in mind to ensure that you follow the rules and avoid penalties:
Income Limits: Make sure that you are not eligible to make direct contributions to a Roth IRA. For 2023, the income limits for making a full contribution to a Roth IRA are $138,000 for individuals and $218,000 for married couples filing jointly. If your income exceeds these limits, you can consider doing a backdoor Roth IRA.
Contribution Limits: The contribution limit for a Roth IRA is $6,500 for 2023 (or $7,500 if you are age 50 or older). Keep in mind that this is the total contribution limit for both direct and backdoor contributions to a Roth IRA. If you have already contributed to a traditional IRA or made direct contributions to a Roth IRA, you may need to adjust your backdoor Roth IRA contribution accordingly.
Tax Consequences: When you do a backdoor Roth IRA, you are essentially converting a traditional IRA contribution to a Roth IRA. Step one of the Backdoor Roth IRA is making a non-deductible contribution to your Traditional IRA. It’s your responsibility to report the non-deductible contribution to your Traditional IRA at tax time on IRS form 8606, Nondeductible IRAs. Form 8606 helps track your basis and avoid paying additional tax on your non-deductible contribution as you convert the balance to a Roth IRA.
Pro Rata Rule: If you have existing traditional IRA balances, the IRS requires that you calculate the conversion using the pro rata rule. This means that the conversion is not based solely on the amount you are converting but also on the total balance of your traditional IRA(s). If you have significant pre-tax contributions in your traditional IRA, this can impact the tax consequences of a backdoor Roth IRA. With careful planning, you can avoid triggering the pro-rata rule by managing the retirement account types that you hold.
Timing: It’s important to time your backdoor Roth IRA carefully to avoid potential penalties. Ideally, the conversion should be done as soon as possible after the contribution is made to avoid potential tax consequences from earnings in the traditional IRA.
Overall, a backdoor Roth IRA can be a powerful tool for high-income earners to take advantage of the tax benefits of a Roth IRA. However, it’s important to understand the rules and potential tax consequences to avoid penalties and maximize your benefits.
About the author: Ashley Dickson is a co-founder and financial planner at Next Bloom Wealth LLC. She serves clients in the Kansas City area with a focus on holistic and comprehensive financial planning.
This article is for educational purposes only. If you’re considering executing a backdoor Roth IRA, consult your financial or tax professional.